Member- Self- Aware Aware Encoded EXAMPLE(S) Yes No No a circle of regular patrons of a bar Yes No Yes spontaneous charity in face of disastera Yes Yes No a stateb Yes Yes Yes a McDonald's restaurant, a church seeded by a denomination, an intentionally constituted free nation No No No a spontaneous order among lower organismsc No No Yes a bacterium, all lower organisms No Yes No the organization which makes a pencil, the constituency which elects a politiciand No Yes Yes an organism with self-awareness, a human being
b. Here I assume the scenario for origination of a state which was described by Franz Oppenheimer in The State, 1908. In this scenario the state grew as a result of human action—but not as a result of human planning.
c. I propose an example of such a spontaneous order in "An Engineer’s View of Morality" (Footnote 3). As some readers may recall, this example shows one-celled creatures spontaneously establishing a line of trade between a drop of water and a crumb of sugar.
d. Here I include organizations in which the affiliation of the members is informal or noncommittal, such that the members do not consciously classify themselves as members of the organization.